Greenhouse gas exchange over the Arctic Marine waters – focusing on CO2 and CH4 (GRAM)
The main objective of the project is to improve our understanding of the key physical and biochemical processes controlling the magnitude and distribution of the greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) uptake/release by the Arctic marine waters including fjords. This will be done through study of the GHG gas exchange over snow and ice covered and ice-free marine waters. Using process studies, and measurement of select state variables, we will address the following questions we deem important toward a better understanding of regional GHG exchange budgets in coastal Arctic systems. Specific questions to address:
- Are the atmosphere surface exchanges of energy and momentum important processes controlling the drivers of CO2 and CH4 exchange over the ice covered Arctic Ocean and adjacent coastal areas? And if so – how does the energy balance affect the GHG flux?
- How is snow cover affecting the GHG exchange between the atmosphere and the surface in different seasons? Will melting of snow enhance or decrease the marine CO2 uptake?
- Are surface fluxes of GHG’s in this coastal marine system influenced by characteristics of (under-ice) seawater, and in particular is there a link to terrestrial/aquatic systems?
- Is it possible to exploit relationships associated with the preceding questions toward flux parameterizations suitable for sea ice and ocean models?